Fish Oil vs. Cod Liver Oil for Acne: A New Perspective

Sonia taking fermented cod liver oil for clear skin

Sonia taking fermented cod liver oil – before we realized how much of a problem it can be!

What do fish oil and cod liver oil have to do with acne, anyway?

In a nutshell, fish oil – or rather, omega-3 fatty acids – appears to help some people clear up their skin faster.  This is because omega-3s reduce inflammation in a few different ways.

Sounds good, right?

Well, inflammation is a major contributor to acne, so it’s tempting to think it’s a good idea to start taking fish oil.

But before you go running to the store or your favorite retail website for a bottle, let me say this: although we used to recommend supplementing with fish oil, we advise against it now. 2017 update: Same with fermented cod liver oil! We longer recommend taking this either.

In fact, taking fish oil (or cod liver oil, or any other marine oil) may ultimately make your acne worse.

First, I’ll tell you how fish oil “works.”

Fish oil contains a large amount of omega-3 fatty acids, particularly EPA and DHA, which interact with omega-6 fatty acids to reduce or end your body’s inflammatory response.

When you have a really skewed omega-3:6 ratio in your diet – as in, way too much omega-6 and not enough omega-3 – your inflammation levels skyrocket.

Not good!

And for some years now, people have been using large doses of fish oil to treat inflammation by balancing out those pesky omega-6s.

How does inflammation relate to acne? Well, It’s responsible for the redness and swelling that makes acne so embarrassing. Reduce inflammation, and your acne won’t swell up so much (or get so cherry-red).

Cod liver oil, which we used to recommend, works to heal acne mainly because it gives you a big boost of vitamin A, which is a critical vitamin for preventing acne breakouts.

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Okay… so what are fish oil and cod liver oil, exactly?

Fish oil is basically oil that’s extracted from fish bodies, while cod liver oil is taken from the livers of codfish (or pollock, or something else… I’m looking at you, Green Pastures! False marketing alert!).

And like I said above, fish oil is a powerful source of omega-3s, and omega-3s have anti-inflammatory effects.

What’s the big deal with inflammation?

You see, these days, most of the common Western diet is highly inflammatory.

What does that mean, exactly?

Well, it means that most people are eating way too many foods loaded with omega-6 fats, sugar, trans fats, and gluten, all of which are pro-inflammatory.

These inflammatory foods drive your immune system to do insane things, like causing swelling where you least want it – arthritis, for example, and of course, acne.

When your immune system is on constant red alert, and it stumbles across a clogged pore on that lovely face of yours, it dives in for the attack! The clogged pore becomes inflamed, red, and swollen, leading to nasty-looking zit-monsters.

You see, if your immune system were healthy and normal, a clogged pore wouldn’t cause a big fuss. Your body would heal the ruptured pore pretty quickly and then go on functioning normally. No big deal! But when your body is in a constant state of hyper-immune-activation and inflammation, any little thing sets off your immune system – and that leads to disastrous consequences for your face.[1]

How do omega-3s affect inflammation?

Before I get to that, let me explain a few things about the essential fatty acids: omega-3s and omega-6s. While there are many different fatty acids in the omega-3 and omega-6 families, only a couple are actually really useful and needed in the body. These are docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an omega-3, and arachidonic acid (AA), an omega-6.

Arachidonic acid is critical to the initiation of an inflammatory response, which is why it gets a bad rap. However, AA also turns on the cellular machinery that activates DHA, which helps to bring that inflammatory response to an end.

Together, these two fatty acids are a part of an intricate chemical dance in the body that starts an inflammatory response when it’s needed and then stops it when it isn’t needed anymore.

(Another omega-3 found in fish and fish oils, eicosapentaenoic acid, or EPA,  reduces inflammation mostly by interfering with AA… and therefore with the whole process of inflammation and its resolution. It can actually depress growth and immune function, which is why we’re not too excited about EPA.)[2]

As you can see, omega-3 fats – namely DHA – have an incredibly powerful role in quickly resolving inflammation when it is no longer needed.

The key here is your ratio of these omega-3s to pro-inflammatory omega-6 fats. The rub is that if the inflammation-initiating omega-6 fats aren’t balanced by sufficient omega-3s, your immune system goes vigilante on you (boom! Faceful of acne). Even worse, though, is having a large overall load of PUFA. We really want to balance omega 3s and 6s close to a 1:1 ratio, while bringing down our overall consumption of them as much as possible.

Now, if you were eating like a hunter-gatherer of yesteryear – e.g. wild game (nose-to-tail eating), tubers, edible plants, a few legumes and grains here and there, a few berries, the odd beehive – you’d have an omega-3 to omega-6 ratio of around 1:1 (ideal, by some estimates).

But in this day and age, omega-6 fats are in everything – canola oil, safflower oil, vegetable oil, corn, soy, wheat – basically most of the JFBBs (Junk Food Building Blocks) in today’s fast-food world. Most cookies, crackers, snacks, breakfast cereals, and granola bars are made primarily with these JFBBs, which, again, are highly inflammatory.

That’s bad news for acne!

In short, you’ve got to optimize your omega 3:6 ratio if you want clear skin, as well as reducing your overall intake of PUFA.

This will help quiet your immune system down, taking it from red alert down to orange alert, yellow, maybe even just “Ready for action, we’re here when you need us!”

And that’s where you want it.

You want a perfectly functioning immune system that shoots into action when there’s a real problem in your body, not when you get a stinkin’ little clogged pore. And you want an immune system that quiets the heck down when the problem is solved, rather than sticking around for days, partying in your pores and creating red, swollen, painful acne. You’ve had enough of that, right?

So why shouldn’t I take fish oil?

The common wisdom goes like this: fish oil gives you a huge blast of omega-3s (EPA and DHA), which is good because it balances out your omega-6 intake, reducing inflammation.

That seems like a good idea on the surface.

However, I haven’t gotten to the nasty part yet: all omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids are highly reactive in the body.

Why? Well, they’re polyunsaturated fats (PUFAs). In chem-speak, they contain two or more double bonds, which makes them billions of times more reactive than, say, saturated fat (grass-fed animal fat, coconut oil, red palm oil, etc.). And millions of times more reactive than monounsaturated fat (olive oil, avocados, etc).

Why is this potentially dangerous?

Health researcher Chris Masterjohn came up with a really apt metaphor for PUFAs – he compares them “delicate glass.”

Now, glass is incredibly useful in our modern world (can you imagine windows made from steel?). But glass is also extremely delicate – it shatters easily, fragmenting into a million pieces that spread far and wide across the floor, can cause all kinds of bodily harm, and can take a long time to clean up.

PUFAs are very similar. Like glass, they’re very useful for the body for some critical bodily functions, but they’re extremely delicate. When they “shatter” – i.e., when they get oxidized by a free radical – they set off chain reactions that oxidize other PUFAs, which oxidize still more PUFAs, which oxidize yet more PUFAs – it’s a gigantic, damaging ripple effect.

Worst part? These oxidized PUFAs (known as lipid peroxides) eventually break down into dangerous compounds like malondialdehyde (MDA), which can directly damage DNA and proteins throughout the body, causing widespread damage to all body systems (slowly, over time, so it’s insidious and difficult to see in the short term – acne breakouts can be a great early warning flag for PUFA overload, actually, which is better than getting heart disease or something else nasty down the road!).

Oxidative stress like this can damage just about every biological tissue in the body, and – yep, you guessed it – can worsen acne as well.

Wolfing down a bunch of fish oil might reduce inflammation / redness / swelling in the short term, but can create a potentially worse long-term problem of oxidative stress, as you start to deplete vitamin E, glutathione, iodine, and other lipid-peroxidation-blocking antioxidant systems in the body.

(And if you need any additional convincing, consider this: in the longest and one of the largest fish oil trials ever conducted, the heart disease patients taking fish oil had a 30% increase in heart-related death!)[3]

Okay, so what should I do instead?

Better solution?

  1. Focus on getting your omega-6 intake as low as possible.
  2. Slightly increase your omega-3 by switching to grass-fed and pasture-raised meats (and raw, grass-fed dairy from heritage-breed animals, if tolerated).

Let’s go over these separately.

How to reduce your omega-6 intake

The main sources of omega-6 are:

  • Sunflower oil
  • Safflower oil
  • Peanut/groundnut oil
  • Cottonseed oil
  • Soybean oil
  • Corn oil
  • Grapeseed oil
  • Canola oil
  • Deep fried foods (which contain large amounts of the above oils)
  • Processed foods (which contain large amounts of the above oils)
  • Walnut oil
  • Flax oil
  • ALL nuts and seeds, except macadamia nuts

And if you’re not convinced already, here’s a roundup of the key clear-skin benefits to improving your omega-3 to omega-6 ratio (by reducing omega-6 consumption):

Improving this fatty acid ratio can help…

  • Reduce redness and puffiness of acne lesions.
  • Moisturize your skin naturally, making your skin softer.
  • Reduce stress, preventing excess acne-causing sebum production.
  • Slow down skin cell over-production, keeping your pores open and free.
  • Balance hormone production, making your skin less oily.

In addition to helping clear your skin, a healthier omega-3 to -6 ratio can also provide the following benefits:

  • Reduced joint pain.
  • Improved mood. [4]  [5]
  • Improved brain performance. [6]
  • Stronger hair.
  • More energy.
  • Improved cholesterol levels.
  • Enhanced male fertility. [7]
  • Fat loss. [8]  [9]

That’s a key theme in this blog – by targeting the root causes of acne, you’ll also become healthier, fitter, and more radiant. You’ll be giving your body clean, high-octane food that’s loaded with essential nutrients that perform millions of complex, tiny functions in the body and lead to an awesome, healthy, clear you.

Why you should NOT take fermented cod liver oil (FCLO)

We used to recommend taking FCLO due to the high retinol-form vitamin A content.

Pre-formed vitamin A especially is pretty difficult to get unless you’re regularly eating organ meats (e.g. liver), shellfish, large quantities of egg yolks, butter, other dairy, etc.

These fat-soluble vitamins are incredibly important to achieving clear skin. Did you know Retin-A and Accutane are actually forms of Vitamin A? That’s one reason why they can be so effective at clearing acne. Now, they’re extremely dangerous with lots of side effects, so I’d never recommend doing these treatments. But the Vitamin A you get from whole foods (like grass-fed liver, etc.) is quite safe in the context of adequate Vitamin D (I’ll get to that in a minute).

(As an aside for our veg-loving readers, vitamin A from animal sources, (retinol, e.g. from cod liver oil), is much more readily absorbed by the body than Vitamin A from vegetables (beta-carotene). Vitamin A from carrots, for example, is a lot more difficult for your body to work with, so even if you eat lots of carrots, you could still be deficient in retinol-based Vitamin A.)

As of 2017, we no longer recommend taking cod liver oil, fermented or not, due to the high PUFA content. We think it’s best to reduce your overall consumption of omega-fatty-acids (PUFA) as much as possible. When you switch to naturally-raised pastured meats, occasional seafood if available, etc., and avoid all vegetable oils and almost all nuts and seeds (except macadamias), you’ll be naturally balancing your omega 3:6 ratio while keeping your overall intake of PUFA as low as possible.

Wait! How do I get vitamin A then, if I can’t take cod liver oil?

Good question! Grass-fed liver, desiccated liver capsules, or a quality vitamin A supplement. Aim for 10,000-20,000 IU per day if you’re really struggling with acne, though it’s important to make sure you’re getting enough K2, D, and E as well. More details in our book – sorry this is so dang complicated! :/

Key Takeaways

  • Do NOT take regular fish oil, period. It’s often rancid and increases lipid peroxidation in the body (BAD).
  • Do NOT take cod liver oil, either, since it’s also basically pure PUFA, increasing lipid peroxidation (BAD for skin).
  • Eat grass-fed liver, or take desiccated liver capsules, or take a quality vitamin A supplement to get adequate pre-formed vitamin A. More details and specifics in our book.
  • Vitamin A is exremely important, but it’s just one of a wide range of players and triggers in the vicious acne cycle. A holistic diet- and lifestyle-based treatment for acne is really the only way to be free of it forever, in our experience (that’s what our book is all about!).
  • Yes, we are a business. Yes, we do make money if you buy our book. That said, we try to do our best to over-deliver our end of the bargain – we think our complete book program is a small price to pay for the knowledge on how to clear up your acne for good! 🙂 It takes a lot of time, research, and diligence to figure out what the root triggers of acne are, and come up with a holistic, easy-to-understand plan that fits a wide range of lifestyles for people all around the world. We’ve done our best to make this as easy and straightforward as possible, because we know how much of a soul-sucking pain acne can be!

About Devin Mooers

Devin MooersHey! Over the past 10 years, I've developed a powerful system for clearing acne with a little-known diet- and lifestyle-based method, and I want to spread the love. That's why I started Clear Skin Forever back in 2011. I studied engineering and product design at Stanford University, and graduated in the top 5% of my class, but afterward, I decided to focus on writing about health, since I found it so fulfilling to help people clear their acne for good. Thanks for reading, and sign up for email updates to stay in the loop with clear skin tips! Also, be sure to check out our book if you haven't yet, all about how to fix acne permanently with diet and lifestyle changes. We've helped thousands of people get clear skin this way!

Sources (click to expand)

  1. Inflammation. Wikipediahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inflammation ^
  2. Masterjohn, Chris. Precious Yet Perilous. The Weston A. Price Foundation, 2010. ^
  3. Masterjohn, Chris. Precious Yet Perilous. The Weston A. Price Foundation, 2010. ^
  4. Freeman MP. Omega-3 fatty acids in major depressive disorder. J Clin Psychiatry. 2009;70 Suppl 5:7-11. Review. ^
  5. 44 Conklin SM, Manuck SB, Yao JK, Flory JD, Hibbeln JR, Muldoon MF. High omega-6 and low omega-3 fatty acids are associated with depressive symptoms and neuroticism. Psychosom Med. 2007 Dec;69(9):932-4. Epub 2007 Nov 8. ^
  6. Fontani G, Corradeschi F, Felici A, Alfatti F, Migliorini S, Lodi L. Cognitive and physiological effects of Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in healthy subjects. Eur J Clin Invest. 2005 Nov;35(11):691-9. ^
  7. Safarinejad MR, Hosseini SY, Dadkhah F, Asgari MA. Relationship of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids with semen characteristics, and anti-oxidant status of seminal plasma: a comparison between fertile and infertile men. Clin Nutr. 2010 Feb;29(1):100-5. Epub 2009 Aug 8. ^
  8. Couet C, Delarue J, Ritz P, Antoine JM, Lamisse F. Effect of dietary fish oil on body fat mass and basal fat oxidation in healthy adults. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1997 Aug;21(8):637-43. ^
  9. Chambrier C, Bastard JP, Rieusset J, Chevillotte E, Bonnefont-Rousselot D, Therond P, Hainque B, Riou JP, Laville M, Vidal H. Eicosapentaenoic acid induces mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma. Obes Res. 2002 Jun;10(6):518-25. ^

{ 31 Comments }

  1. Srey says

    I love this post! I recommend this book “inheritance” by Sharon D Moalem. It talks a lot about genetics, and could be helpful to understand more about epi genetics, and our human genome.

  2. Mike says

    Why do you say that coffee negatively affects muscle since there is like a bunch of evidence that shows the caffeine from the coffee actually helps build muscle and burn fat. Of course this is when you take black coffee without any sweeteners. I have read so many articles that talk about consuming coffee in a fasted state leading to positive muscle gains you can find them easily too

    • Devin Mooers says

      Hey Mike! Interesting point here. I found this study:

      https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2257922/

      …Which says that you habituate to the caffeine in a few days’ time, meaning your morning coffee no longer stimulates over-production of cortisol once you adapt to drinking coffee daily. However, the study still found that a 1:00 PM cup of coffee boosted cortisol levels higher than normal (though the study only ran for 5 days of caffeine habituation). My personal experience is that coffee just makes me more stressed out in response to stressful events, which includes cortisol release. But I haven’t read the articles you have about fasted-state coffee drinking leading to muscle gains – I wonder if this is just due to metabolic rate increase from the caffeine? In any case, if coffee floats your boat and treats you well, go for it!

    • Devin Mooers says

      Hey Julie! I’m not totally sure on this. That still sounds like a good range. I was going based on a Dr. Mercola article, which I can no longer find (the link is broken). I am far from an expert on what ideal ferritin levels should be!

    • Rhonda says

      I will interject with a personal anecdote about Ferritin levels. I have a genetic disorder called Hemachromatosis. It causes iron from the food I eat to get into my organs and my body can only release it through phlebotomy (donating blood). My Dr noticed a high ferritin level and high liver enzymes on a blood panel and on a hunch she ordered a DNA test for this. If you are suspicious that your ferritin levels are out of whack, ask for this test. This condition is very common especially if you are of Irish or Scottish descent. It’s a lifelong condition but the remedy is easy because you just have to have your levels checked regularly and donate a pint of blood to balance your levels. I am so grateful my doc was smart enough to call for this test. Having this disorder and not taking care of it can lead to liver damage and heart attack. It’s hereditary and if you do have it, all of your nearest relatives should test for it too. Hoping it’s not the case for you, and wishing you all the best!

      • Devin Mooers says

        Kudos to your doc for finding this!! I’m so glad you know now. I had a genetic test done a few years ago, and ruled out hemachromatosis (at least current knowledge of it). So I guess it was just from my diet. And I do have a fair amount of Irish + Scottish in me. Go figure! Great thing to check for, though, as you just found out!

  3. Katy says

    I’m 25 and I have very irregular periods (which have never been regular) and acne since puberty. I got literally all my hormones checked and everything came out normal. Does anyone have an explanation for this?

    • Devin Mooers says

      Hey Katy! I don’t put much stock in hormonal tests, blood tests, saliva tests, or related “snapshot” health tests. I don’t think they’re a very accurate reflection of long-term reality, and don’t often give very useful information for clearing acne (in my experience). The fact that you have irregular periods right away shows that something’s up with your hormone levels, and/or some basic nutrient levels like vitamin A, utilizable iron (don’t go taking iron pills though!), and/or maybe some toxin overload issues. There are lots of things that feed into having a normal cycle, and a hormone test isn’t going to tell you what needs to be fixed.

      Are you drinking fluoridated water, do you know?

      Also, do you want to give an overview of what your current diet is – the more detail the better! – and any pills/supplements you’re taking? I can see if anything jumps out!

  4. Johnny Cox says

    Hi. Im going to say that Im afraid to eat coconut because of acne. Chocolate of any kind gives me acne too. Even fish oil. All these oils do it to me. I used to suspect leaky gut causing me breakouts. All these oils ruin my skin. Whey concentrate and isolate too! Someone said “keep eating the Extra Virgin Coconut oil, It’s just die-off!! It will stop soon” But it does not stop. I get brutal acne from it. Tempted to try again after reading this, but it scares me. My acne is so painful..

    • Devin Mooers says

      Hey Johnny! Really sorry to hear about your experience with so many oils/fats giving you acne. Huge bummer! Frustrating not to know whether it’s from die-off or detox, or just an adverse reaction. (I will say that whey isolate/concentrate both give me acne as well!)

      Couple questions… are you using organic coconut oil, or non-organic?

      Also, do you want to post a mini diet overview right here? I can see if any major red flags come up.

      Finally, are you drinking fluoridated tap water? (And/or using fluoride toothpaste?) Wondering if these fats/oils might be causing a detoxification of fluoride, causing transient acne.

    • Devin Mooers says

      Hey Ashley! I think it’s okay in really small amounts as a garnish or flavoring, but it’s very high in PUFA so I wouldn’t make it a main cooking or salad oil. Toasted sesame seed oil is even a bit more risky because of the toasting process damaging more of the PUFA (and the protective vitamin E found in raw sesame oil).

      What are you wanting to use sesame oil for? Maybe I can suggest a skin-friendly alternative!

  5. Kris says

    Hi Devin,
    Great research, thank you for linking the sources. I’ve suffered with back acne for years. I eat a mostly plant based diet, so I’d call myself a flexitarian (95% plants, 5% grass fed-organic animal). Before that I did mostly Paleo, therefore lots of fresh plants, but still a lot of organic meat/poultry.
    From recent testing, I have low iron stores (ferritin), normal iron (since I suppliment), and low iodine (I now supplement—-boyfriend has shellfish allergy…). I take vitamine A and Magnesium as well.
    I’m game to try anything thats humane and organic even if its not a plant based suppliment, but I would be interested in the Frankin-rice you mentioned since I try to avoid dairy due to an intolerance (causes me inflammation and IgG testing shows markers). If the colostrum is derived from cows or colostrum is from humans, wouldn’t in theory the human one be closer to what we need? Albeit odd to consider!!
    I’ve also looked for a non-bovine ferritin supplement, but it seems I may need to take the bovine one as the plant ones are just more iron (leading to excess). I just want to be humane in my choices, with no added hormones from the cows, etc. With all that said—I’m open to anything—as my skin and other health issues are the number one priority! Any product tips would be greatly appreciated. I use Pure Encapsulations too. 😊 Thank you!

    • Devin Mooers says

      Hey Kris! Sorry for the epic delay on this, I haven’t checked blog comments in a long time. My fault!

      How low is your ferritin? Did you get liver enzymes checked? It’s quite possible to have low ferritin, but also have an overload of unusable iron stored up in your liver. Taking additional iron supplements on top of that, if that’s the case, isn’t a very good idea. Liver enzymes (and/or GGT) can help point to iron overload in the liver. (See my iron article for more info on tests.)

      What kind of iron are you supplementing with?

      Doubt you’ll find human-sourced colostrum, though it’s an interesting idea! 🙂

      Are you interested in lactoferrin for reducing your iron levels, or for boosting your ferritin? There are definitely other, more effective ways of modulating ferritin, I think (see the iron article linked above for way more info on all the iron stuff, including why I think many people may have an iron overload problem even if ferritin levels don’t show it). I’d target the iron-utilization-boosting nutrients listed in the iron article, personally.

      Also, how much iodine are you taking? What form?

      Finally, have you thought about A2 milk as a skin-safe dairy option, that would give you some lactoferrin in a whole food form?

  6. Donna says

    I actually test low for iron. My Tibc, Total Iron, Iron Saturation, and Ferritin are all low.
    It was recommended for me to take Lactoferrin with an iron supplement to properly increase my iron.
    I’m confused about your article because it makes me second guess my situation. You don’t believe ANYONE is actually low in iron?

    • Devin Mooers says

      Hey Donna! How low are we talking on these numbers?

      I definitely think there are a small number of people who are actually low in iron, but I think it’s probably a lot fewer people than most doctors think. Often, if you have iron dysregulation, excess iron gets stored up in your liver, which doesn’t show up one these blood tests. If you’re lacking in one of the co-factors necessary to use iron properly (vitamin A, molybdenum, vitamin C, copper, ceruloplasmin, vitamin B12, etc.), you can get excess iron deposits in the liver combined with low circulating iron. When you add a plain iron supplement on top of that, without addressing the deficient co-factors, you can worsen the problem. Did you happen to get your liver enzymes and/or GGT tested? That can sometimes indicate excess iron storage in the liver. But keep in mind I have zero clinical experience in all this and just going based on the all the research I’ve read (and my own iron overload problem).

  7. jay,s says

    hi, suffering from acne for 20 years and a rediculolus amount of money spent on “solutions”i tried a newer supplement that’s called acne block that contains lactoferrin,found it on amazon.. it actually was/is one of the only supplements I have tried that actually helped..

    • Devin Mooers says

      Great to hear you got good results from lactoferrin! The science is sound behind why it works, helping to reduce iron overload. Good stuff.

  8. Sara says

    Would eating liver or taking a dessicated liver supplement cause iron overload? I would like to get more vitamin A, but am concerned about the extra iron I would be getting.

    • Devin Mooers says

      Hey Sara! Wise to be cautious about this. Do you have reason to suspect you have existing iron overload? Curious about that, I’ve suspected that in myself for a while now, and have been avoiding liver for that reason. I’m taking Pure Encapsulations vitamin A instead.

    • Sarah says

      Suggesting vegans/Vegetarians have a greater risk of iron deficiency is incorrect. There are at least as many meat-eaters as vege people deficient in Iron. Meat is not an efficient source of iron for human beings. Cutting out animal products goes along way in clearing up acne.

      • Devin Mooers says

        Hey Sarah! I actually agree with your first point now, but differ in the second. I think many people, vegeterians and meat-eaters, have an iron overload problem. This is pretty new to me, but the research seems sound. Turns out you can have anemia AND iron overload, due to iron getting deposited in your liver, but a lack of nutrients that are required to put iron into hemoglobin, like vitamin C, vitamin A, molybdenum, and copper. I also think the research strongly points to heme iron from meat being an excellent source of iron – much more absorbable than plant iron – but I now think eating too much meat leads to iron overload, because your body can’t shut off absorption from heme iron like it can from plant iron. If you’re curious to learn more, I just posted a huge article on iron and acne two days ago:

        Iron and Acne

        I think this is really an unusual perspective, and the opposite of what most people will tell you! Curious to hear your thoughts! 🙂 (I’m actually eating mostly vegetarian these days, due to trying to reverse my iron overload problem, and, yes, the environmental impact.)

  9. Taylor says

    So if I maintain a Paleo/Whole 30 diet that includes high quality meats and seafoods and I do not eat any of the iron-fortified foods or foods that inhibit lactoferrin – my body should be creating lactoferrin on it’s own in a healthy manner and I likely do not need to supplement it, correct?

    • Devin Mooers says

      Yep, exactly! Historical iron overload can be an issue, less so for menstruating women due to the continual iron dumping outlet. Bloodletting was effective back in the day for many diseases due to iron removal! Men don’t have such a built-in iron removal system (perhaps explaining why men tend to live shorter lives than women – iron buildup!). I’m not 100% sure how effective lactoferrin supplementation is for addressing built-up iron overload. Morley Robbins (gotmag.org) is the guy to read about on all the iron issues.

  10. Christina says

    I’m confused. I was just about to purchase some FCLO for my teen daughter to help her with her acne and now I stumbled across your reply where you state you no longer recommend FCLO! Why the change?

    • Devin Mooers says

      Hey Christina! Sorry about the confusion here – I wish we could keep the same recommendations forever, but our knowledge (and the science, and reader experience, etc.) forces us to change our recommendations now and then, and it’s hard to change everywhere all at once! We changed this recommendation because FCLO is basically pure PUFA (polyunsaturated fat), which is more susceptible to lipid peroxidation than other fats, and this is a major contributor to acne, we now believe (lipid peroxidation). The vitamin A in FCLO tends to be very beneficial, but you can get that vitamin A from eating liver, taking desiccated liver capsules, or taking a vitamin A supplement such as this one by Pure Encapsulations. We now think it’s best to reduce the total body load of PUFA as much as possible, rather than trying to boost omega-3s, for instance. Does this make sense?

    • Devin Mooers says

      Hey Sam! That’s actually a really good idea. We currently do not recommend taking FCLO or cod liver oil – we’ve updated our book but haven’t found the time yet to update our cod liver oil blog post – we’ll do that soon! We recommend taking desiccated liver capsules or eating grass-fed liver regularly, or taking a vitamin A supplement like this one:

      Pure Encapsulations Vitamin A 10,000 IU

      Taking vitamin E is a great PUFA defense strategy when you’re eating out at restaurants or for some reason consume a large amount of PUFA. We’re working on a “PUFA Shield” supplement that incorporates full-spectrum E along with some other lipid peroxidation blockers to make it easier for travelers, folks who eat out a lot, etc. to avoid the worst PUFA effects on acne.

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